“What’s my name, Mothafucka”?: The Manifestations of Black Freedoms and Ontologies through DreamScripting

Rihanna in 2012 asked a very important question when she sang “Ooh na na, what’s my name, what’s my name”? In doing so Rihanna joins a long history of Black artists, entertainers, athletes, and intellectuals who have asked this most important question “What’s my name”? Now, Rihanna may have been singing this question to a future intimate partner, so this question may not seem as earth-shaking as one might think. However, when i hear this question from Rihanna i can only hear this same question asked by Muhammad Ali as “what’s my name” echoes the punches off the face of Ernie Terrell who refused to call Ali by his name after he changed his name from Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr to Muhamad Ali. Ali was literally fighting over his name. And in this fight, he like Rihanna is a part of a long Black tradition and history of Black folks fighting for their names. Black folks since they got ripped and kidnapped from their native lands in the 17th century and violently transported to the Western world as property and devices of labor Black folks have been fighting to save their name as a way to defy their social death and claim their freedom and ontology.

 In Alex Haley’s Roots, we see Kunta an African Slave demand his master who is whipping his back to call him Kunta as a way to assert his humanity through the violence and blundering. This fight from Kunta is exemplary of the way that Black folks have been fighting to keep their names or to claim their names. Now, while Kunta was a fictional character there have been key public Black cultural producers who have fought to claim their names. Through their fights, they have claimed their names through self-determination which allowed them to demonstrate their humanity. But beyond self-determination, these figures have been able to write their own stories in the American history archive. This process of writing in the American history archive is what Sadiya Hartman calls “Critical Fabiluation”. Now, critical fabulation is not only a writing process but it is also a performance. This performative critical fabulation in the efforts of name demanding i am calling “Dreamscripting”. i will argue that these dreamscripts from Black cultural producers serve as poignant examples and performances of the power of claiming names in the fight for Black humanity, and the dismantling of the white supremacist society that creates the conditions of a social death, which does not allow for Black folks to dream. Furthermore, these Black cultural producers use dreamscripts to first write their stories into the American history archive. And second, these dreamscripts become devices in which these Black cultural producers can manifest their dreams as a way to take a hold of their freedom, agency, and humanity. In crafting these dreamscripts these Black cultural producers are almost prophetic in a way as they wheel their ontological freedom into existence. 

Modernity the Casting of Social Death 

Once we begin to open our minds and expand our perspectives it is evident to see that these Black cultural producers have dreamed their realities into existence. However, before we begin to see the manifestations of these beautiful dreamed performances we must understand the precise moment in which Black folks were sedated into a slumber which created the conditions for them to become dreamers. It is at this exact moment that Black folks were conditioned to become dependent on their ‘masters’ thus casting a hierarchical relationship between master (whiteness) and slave (Blackness). i understand this moment to be the year 1619 and i recognize this moment as the mark of modernity. Now, there is a lot of discourse and discussion on the start of modernity. However, i contend that in the year 1619 the universe entered the modern era due to the fact it is in this year that Africans were stolen from their native lands. These Africans were transported to the shores of Virginia and all across the western world not only as cargo but as property and as devices of labor also known as the slaves who built the modern world. Through being stolen and subjugated as laborers Africans became to only know their reality as a reality that is always in service to their master. Thus, “The slave was a dominated thing, an animated instrument, a body with natural movements, but without its own reason, an existence entirely absorbed in another” (Patterson,1982,p. 4).  The master is everything to the slave, the master is the denier of life to the slave, and the slave knows no world without their master. 

Conversely, this dependency on the master for the slave establishes the reality that “Human Life is dependent on Black death for its existence and for its conceptual coherence. There is no World without Blacks, yet there are no Blacks who are in the World” (Wilderson, 2016).  Seeing that there is no world without Blacks, yet there are no Blacks who are in the world we begin to understand that the ontological space that Blacks live in is a peculiar one wherein which they are not granted humanity or true personhood. 

This ontological space that Blacks occupy is social death. To comprehend social death we must first know what it means to be human. This question of humanity is one of the oldest questions in philosophy. And Blacks, are constantly forced to ask themselves what does it mean to be human?  Or what does it mean to exist in an antiBlack world? Therefore i contend to be Black and to be human if free of the reality of the master/slave relationship. However, in 2023 there is still very much this reality, so how do Blacks become human and claim personhood? 

In the Wake of the Afterlife 

With living on the plantation there is no afterlife of slavery there is just social death. In thinking about emancipation, the civil rights movement, and the election of America’s first Black president Barack Obama one might assume that racism and antiBlack violence would cease to exist. However, it has been stated and proven that this violence has only persisted. Therefore, the question remains why does this violence continue to manifest, sinisterly marginalize Blacks, and genocidally kill off Blacks?  Well, the short answer is that antiBlack violence is the engine that powers America. Put differently,  “All the things that sustain human life but don’t appear on the ledger. What if anti-Black violence could be counted among the things that make like life, without registering as profit or loss” (Wilderson, 2020, p. 92)?  The logics of antiBlackness and its violence is the thing that procreates life.  AntiBlack violence is a vicious virus it is an evil, evil parasite. This bloodsucking violence, “is parasitic because white and non-Black subjectivity cannot be imbued with the capacity for self-knowledge and intersubjective community without anti-Black violence without, that it is, the violence of social death. In other words, White people and their junior partners need anti-Black violence to know their alive” (Wilderson, 2020, p93). AntiBlack violence is the way that White people and other non-Blacks consciously or subconsciously make sense of their reality, their self-image, and their understanding of the world, and it is always crafted in relation to this violence. Thus this antiBlack violence is always a spectacle and a public display so whites and non-Blacks have a mirror that they can use to manufacture their image and understanding. It is through this mirror that whites and non-Blacks exclaim their daily affirmations of “ at least I’m not Black”, “All lives matter”, “ I can’t be a racist”, “ I don’t think it’s like that I mean,  I am poor too” and “ I do not see color”. While all these things may be true the point aforementioned is that America is a plantation that has been built by Blacks and it has harvested Black lives. The mirror that is utilized by whites and non-Blacks is a glass see-through case that holds an open casket occupied by socially dead Blacks. And this casket is an archival exhibition for the public to view. This open casket service is where Blacks live. Blacks live in the wake. The wake is “a consciousness and to propose that to be in the wake is to occupy and to be occupied by the continuous and changing present of slavery’s as yet unresolved unfolding” (Sharpe, 2016, p. 41). Thus the wake is the consciousness of the socially dead where Blacks reside in limbo and wait for their final burial.

Playing with Corpses 

Being that the wake is a public display often it is a very performative space. 1619 studios  Production Company also known as America cast these performances using controlling images. Controlling images are stereotypical images that are “designed to make racism, sexism, and poverty appear to be natural, normal and an inevitable part of everyday life”( Collins, 2000). Some popular controlling images are “Blacks are lazy”, “ Blacks are violent”, “Blacks are less intelligent”, “ Blacks are criminal” etc, etc, etc, we know what these are. These controlling images work in tandem with material conditions created by the state like poverty and inaccessibility entry to certain institutions. Controlling images are thrust upon Blacks to typecast Blacks and to deny them from various spaces of society. Historically Blacks have been blackballed by controlling images from certain educational spaces and employment spaces thus Blacks have had to seek life in different spaces. Many Blacks have been pushed to pursue life in athletics, music, and other forms of entertainment. However, in these spaces life is just not granted and further life can be snuffed out in these spaces as controlling images still exist. The controlling images in these spaces are utilized to tell Blacks how to act. In these spaces, the new master is the agent, the coach, the manager, the executive, or the director. And the plantation is the record label, the stage, the field, or the practice facility. The master of these spaces uses controlling images to control the neo-slaves so that plantation is kept in order so that it may yield the most productivity from its Blacks. The masters of the spaces actively tell Blacks what forms of Blackness are acceptable but more than anything these Black culture producers are not to defy their masters.

While record labels and athletic facilities mimic the plantations of chattel slavery these spaces may pose potential opportunities for revolts. The revolt becomes possible when Black cultural producers embody the spirit of Kunta and claim their names and performances. Claiming one’s name and performance is what i call Dreamscrippting. For Blacks Dreamscrippting allows them to become “Free Blacks”. Calvin Warren describes free Black as “(1)…  a philosophical concept capturing the continuous metaphysical violence between black being and human being/onto metaphysics and (2) as a particular historical figure that allegorizes metaphysical violence. Thus, the free black here is both philosophical allegory and historical figure”(Warren, 2018,p.16). Building off this concept of Free Black from Warren Dreamscrippting not only sees Free Blacks as philosophical allegories and historical figures but Dreamscriptting sees Free Blacks as a present futurity wherein Blacks claim their freedom and achieve ontology. 

It Was All a Dream

The second book of the Bible is titled ‘Exodus’. In this book, we are told the story of the enslavement of the Israelites. Despite their enslavement, the Israelites were believed to be the Chosen People of God. Connected to this story we learn about the Hebrew prophet Moses who is affectionately known as the “Lawgiver of the Jews”. 

Moses was a Hebrew-born child who was put in a basket as a baby by his mother and he was sent sailing down the Nile River where he was found by the daughter of the Egyptian Pharoah. At this time the Egyptians were enslaving and oppressing the Israelites. Moses would be raised by the Pharoah and his family. When Moses came to know his true origin story as a young man he escaped Egypt. Upon his escape from Egypt Moses found himself on Mount Horeb where he had a vision in seeing a burning bush. In this vision, Moses encounters Yahewa or God. God in this vision demands Moses to return to Egypt to free the enslaved Israelites and deliver them to the promised land of Canaan.  Moses follows this vision and returns to Egypt to liberate the Israelites. In his quest for freedom, Moses was tested many times by God and he was constantly being fought off by the Egyptians. However, Moses was able to find the strength to free the Israelites. Moses led the chosen people to Mount Sinai.

 When Moses and the Israelites arrived at Mount Sinai Moses ascended the mountain by himself while the Israelites remained at the foot of the mountain. Moses would spend 40 days at the top of the mountain. During those long 40 days, several undertakings took place. While Moses was on the top of the mountain the Israelites believed that Moses passed away because they did not see him. This is to say they lost faith. And because they lost faith they ultimately lost faith in God. After losing faith in God the Israelites began to worship false Gods and idols. Meanwhile, as the Israelites were worshipping these false Gods Moses was being delivered by God. When Moses was on the top of the mountain he received the Ten Commandments from God which were written on stone tablets. However, having found out that the Israelites were worshipping false Gods Moses destroyed the tablets in a furious rage. Moses eventually rewrote the commandments on new tablets. After spending time on Mount Sinai Moses once again began the journey to the Promise Land. On this track, Moses told the Israelites that they were not ready nor worthy enough to enter the Promise Land. Therefore, by not being worthy the Israelites would wander for 40 years in the desert and wait for a new generation to evolve who would inherit the land. When the 40 years came to an end Moses was ready to lead the Israelites to freedom in the Promise Land. Leading the Israelites to freedom was obviously hard, treacherous, and dangerous, however, this journey becomes even more daunting on the last leg of the journey when it is revealed to Moses twice that he is going to die before he can enjoy the Promise land. Despite knowing this information Moses continues to lead the Israelites to the Promise Land. Eventually, Moses and the Israelites reach Mount Nebo which is the mountain that overlooks Cannan. Having arrived at Mount Nebo Moses travels to the top of the mountain once again by himself. Making it to the top of the Mountain Moses dies but the Israelites have been delivered to the Promise Land and have been liberated. 

i tell you this story of Moses because his story reminds me of the story of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. who many consider a modern-day prophet (i am one of those). On a blistering hot sunny day, August 28th, 1963 Dr. King stands before 250, 000 people on the steps of the Lincoln Monument which is a monument built by slaves. Standing before these people and on top of the labor of his ancestors, King delivers his dream. King begins his dream by saying “This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity”. Here King is articulating the reality that Blacks have not been freed yet even though its been 100 years since emancipation. King picks up his dream proclaiming “I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood” (King, 1963). It is King’s dream that Blacks will one day be free of slavery and have no masters.  King’s dream is an ambitious one given the reality of social death and the fact that Blacks have been in the wake since 1619. 

Like Moses King has a similar vision in the way that both men visualize themselves leading their people out of slavery. Moses and King share in the vision that they both have had their visions on the top of a mountain. Five years later on  April 3rd, 1968 King delivered a speech in Memphis Tennesee to Sanitation workers. King says at the end of this speech invoking the spirit of Moses “I’ve been to the mountaintop. And I don’t mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you”(King,1968). What is powerful about this King prophetically declares this on the eve of his was assassinated. Just like Moses King knew his death was inevitable. Despite this predestined fate, King knew in his heart that he got his people to the base of the mountain and laid the groundwork for them to begin the climb. This is to say King four years prior to his assassination and one year after he stood on the steps of the Lincoln Monument where he manifested his dream of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race. King was instrumental in getting this signed. Obviously, this act didn’t free Blacks nor did it bring Blacks out of social death but it was a small crack in the tomb of resurrection.

The Fields of Our Dreams

We can learn from the stories of Dr. King and Moses. When i think about these two stories i think about how important is to keep faith because the road to freedom and the Promise Land is long and it may seem like an eternity. The Israelites did not just get freedom once they escaped Egypt. It took the Israelites much longer than the 40 years they wandered in the desert to get to the Promise Land. So while the journey may be long we gotta keep faith. And i recognize to dream may be hard because we do not know exactly if we dream when we are dead or if we are even allowed to dream. However, on that hot August day, King demonstrated that Blacks do in fact have the capacities to dream. Prior to professing his dream King was unsure about sharing this dream. It was until the middle of his speech that a close friend of King’s named Mahalia Jackson yells out to him “Tell them about the dream, Martin! Tell them about the dream” (Crockett, 2016). Hearing this from Jackson King proclaims his iconic dream. This is important to note because we see that we almost did not get King’s dream. King is not alone in being unsure about sharing his dream. Blacks have been denied the right to have dreams because of social death.

Like many Black cultural producers, King understands that there are consequences to sharing their dreams. This is to say when a Black musician shares their vision for creating the music they want to make or when an athlete confidently performs with a new playing style they upset their masters and disrupts the function of the plantation. Therefore, when Black cultural producers defy the controlling images that are used to keep them enslaved they are called crazy, mad, drug addicts, threatening, or even problematic. These descriptors are meant to dismiss Blacks’ dreams of freedom. However, the Black cultural producers that courageously go against these controlling images and seek freedom engage in the project of Dreampscriptting and become Dreamsscrippters. Dreamscripting is a deeply spiritual process wherein Blacks read themselves in the historical archive and begin to comprehend that the material conditions that they presently experience and the current reality they perceive is a result and a manufacturing of the plantation. With this historical understanding, Blacks begin to dream of a dream that is free from the shackles and chains of slavery. However, in Dreamscripting dreams are not passive nor are they just visions that we forget when we wake up. Thus, Dreamscripts are channels for manifesting freedom for Blacks. Dresmscripts bring dreams to life in the way that a performed play conjures the words of a script to life. Dreamscripts are when words become bond.

Dreamscriptting is an act of self-determination and self-identifying. Dreamscripts occur when Blacks take ownership of their dreams and names and speak them into the ether. It is a very possessive act. Dr. King’s speech was not just a speech rather it was a Dreamscript because he owned his dream by saying “I have a dream” and he manifested this dream by scratching the mirror of white supremacy by fighting for the Civil rights Act of 1964. Dr. King’s dreamscript was iconic and there are so many other Black cultural producers who have similar dreams. 

Dreamscripts work because they allow Blacks to define themselves, resist the violence of social death, disidentify the names that keep them enslaved, and ultimately pursue life and freedom. Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali performed dreamscripts when they took on these names as a way to tell white supremacy you are not my slave master. Nina Simone, performed a dreamscript when she sang “I wish I knew how it would feel to be free” because she saw herself as a free Black woman, and using this freedom she dreams of a world where all Blacks are free. bell hooks writes a dreamscript when she undertook the name bell hooks as a way to connect with her maternal great grandmother who was a slave but also by taking on this name hooks indicates​​ “the importance of the substance of her writing as opposed to who she is”. Or even when Prince became the artist as a way to say the label does not own him and his name. All these are examples of dreamscripts of freedom. These dreamscripts provide freedom to these Black cultrual producers because they allow these Black folks to say I AM in the way that God told the Israelites “I am that I am”. Black folks have never been able to say I AM but dreamscripts create the opportunity for Blacks to self-determine so that they may rise on the third day. 

Furthermore, Dr.King or Moses did not get to see the Promise Land. Nor did Prince get to see the dream he created when he became the artist. We might not always get to see the fruits of our dreams. We might get called crazy for our dreams, we might get dismissed for our dreams, and we might even experience more violence because of our dreams. However, we must continue to dream and allow Black children to dream fearlessly without limitation and controlling images. But beyond that, we must continue to sing and chant our dreams so that we may drown out the off-pitch and off-beat tunes of white supremacy. If we become these dreamers we might not only get to the mountaintop but can manifest ontology in the Promise Land of Black Freedom.  

“i am that of a Dream”

Hello peace be on to you,

In the beginning, there was the word in the name. Word was Bond. Now the word bonds us. Now the name makes us lame.

“The principle for yesterday, was Kujichagulia – self-determination – the decision to define ourselves, name ourselves, and speak for ourselves, instead of being defined and spoken for by others”

“ You guys are cool?… I’m talking to the people in my head, too”.

“I remember you was conflicted/ Misusing your influence… But I don’t know, I’m no mortal man, maybe I’m just another nigga”

“… I got a bone to pick. I don’t want you monkey mouth motherfuckers sittin’ in my throne again”

“I’m mad (He mad), but I ain’t stressin’. True friends, one question… Bitch where you when I was walkin’? Now I run the game got the whole world talkin’, King Kunta. Everybody wanna cut the legs off him, Kunta” 

“Your name is Toby. I want to hear you say your name… What is your name?”





“What is your real name”?

“The real names of our people were destroyed during slavery. The last name of my forefathers was taken from them when they were brought to America and made slaves, and then the name of the slave master was given, which we refuse, we reject that name today and refuse it. I never acknowledge it whatsoever”.

“Is that your legal name like your real name”?

“ My father didn’t know his name. My father got his name from his grandfather and he got his name from his grandfather and he got his name from the slave master”. 

“His momma called him Clay so imma call him Clay”

 Bam, what’s my name? “ Cassius” “Bam, what’s my name? “Cassius”  What’s my name, mothafucka?




“I didn’t choose it and I don’t want it. I am Muhammad Ali, a free name — it means beloved of God, and I insist people use it when people speak to me.”

“Was that your shortest fight ever?”

“I bear witness, there’s only one god and Muhammad, blessing and peace be upon him, is his prophet”.

“Is this your shortest fight ever, at any time, amateur or professional ever”?

“As-salamu alaykum Aida… I’m the best ever. I’m the most brutal and vicious and most ruthless champion there’s ever been,  there’s no one can stop me  Lennox is a conqueror? No, I’m Alexander—he’s no Alexander. I’m the best ever. There’s never been anybody as ruthless.  I’m Sonny Liston, I’m Jack Dempsey, there’s no one like—I’m from their cloth. There’s no one that can match me. My style is impetuous, my defense is impregnable, and I’m just ferocious. I want your heart, I want to eat his children. Praise be to Allah”.

He’s a jackass

Who does he think he is?

“I am a God”

“I am a God”

“I am a God”

“I just talked to Jesus, He said, “What up Yeezus?” I said, “Shit I’m chilling. Trying to stack these millions”

“I just told you who i thought i was… a god” Would it be better if i am a made song called  i am a nigger”

“So you mean to tell me I’m the creator of all this right?”

“You the creator of all this. Because all these things must happen, it must take place. See people go back in the day, God. They say: one man, one woman, .Adam and Eve, there ain’t no such thing. Everything you see always has been and always will what be. Regardless the womb or what, it’s got to be”.

Why do you call yourself the artist? 

“Because, because, because, because. And I heard him say. Beside myself, no other, I am. And uh, no mother, no sister, no brother. Only I am”.


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